Project description

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Project description

The main scientific goals to be pursued to achieve the general objective of this project can be resumed as follows:


Evaluation of the feasibility of green processes (Pulsed Electric Fields – PEF, High Voltage Electric Discharges – HVED, Subcritical Water Extraction – SWE) for the extraction of valuable compounds (1 thesis (UTC/ESCOM) and 1 post-doctoral student (9 months, UBS)).


grappe1The aim of the research is the use of PEF, HEVD and SWE to intensify the extraction of soluble phenolic compounds and define the aromatic compounds. A first study, at the laboratory scale, will be dedicated to study the interaction between the parameters of the treatments (field strength, pressure, treatment time...) and the extraction conditions (size of the chips, green solvents, solid-to-liquid ratio, temperature, agitation...) on the content of active polyphenols. The identification of the best set parameters for each process will be defined to optimize the extraction yield of the valuable compounds from products (organic wastes and wood wastes). Quantitative efficiency (quantification of total phenolics), qualitative composition of the various extracts (HPLC analysis of the main classes of polyphenols), antioxidant activities (ORAC and DPPH values), aroma composition (GC/MS) and physical and chemical properties (color, solubility, stability...) will be determined. All these parameters will be compared to those obtained with a conventional extraction process (hydro-alcoholic maceration), for each residue (type of grape, wine-making and wood wastes). Liquid extracts will be used for purification by membrane filtration or purification on Amberlite resins.


Purification and fractionation of the extracts (1 thesis (UBS))


The purification of the extracts will be performed, in order to obtain extracts highly concentrated in valuable compounds. The first step is the elimination of the suspended solids potentially awkward for the purification, by microfiltration. Then, the fractionation and the enrichment of the extracts in valuable compounds will be performed by membrane processes such as ultrafiltration or nanofiltration. The influence of various parameters will be studied for each extract (membrane cut-off, physical-chemical characteristics of the membrane, operational parameters such as transmembrane pressure, concentration factor). If necessary, a final purification step will be performed by with chromatographic techniques (low-pressure chromatography or centrifugal partition chromatography). The conditions of drying and pulverizing (UBS, UTC/ESCOM) will also be studied. Solubility, organoleptic and nutritional quality of the different extracts will be assessed in model solutions and in real products. Some extracts will be used in the project by EIC with Switzerland wines, by GEI with German (Rhein) wines and by SME with French wines.

 

Cost, environmental, economic and social analysis for the valorization of the new compounds (1 thesis, GEI)


This part will evaluate the eco-innovation of the high added value compounds.
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1. The first aim managed by EIC is the evaluation of the production solid wastes: cluster stems, pomaces and vine shoots on various grapes varieties. The study with the following grape varieties (15) is considered: Chasselas, Chardonnay, Petite Arvine, Sauvignon blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, Gamay, Merlot, Syrah, Gamaret, Garanoir, Cornalin, Humagne rouge, Gallota, Cabernet-Sauvignon. For each grape varieties, in 4 different plots / variety the following factories will be evaluated: weight of pruned vine shoots; yield of grapes and cluster stems; rate of seeds and skins in berries (%w/w); production of pomaces through usual wine making methods; dosage of phenolic compounds in skins and seeds. A second aim of this part is the evaluation of these processes on the environment, particularly the cycle of the carbon thru the organic matter. This analysis will evaluate the effects of the harvest of vine shoots on the rate of organic matter in the soils and compare the effect on soil structure of organic matter from green cover and of organic matter from vine shoots. The sustainability of the process on organic matter will be evaluated. Finally, costs (work + transport) of solid waste will be evaluated.

2. The UBS will take in charge the environmental evaluation by an evaluation of the different green processes carbon footprint. These results will be compared with those obtained by the conventional extraction process.

bouteille3. To evaluate the social issues, blind – and informed liking test will be performed for measuring the socio-economic impact of using products resulting from recycling or environmental-friendly processes (1 thesis, GEI). Two wines (white and red) with different conditions of ageing will be chosen from the experiments. The social impact will be evaluated by sensorial analysis of different wines: traditional ageing (barrel and chips) compared with the addition of the produced extracts for white and red wine (wine without wood contact, wine in barrel, wine with chips or staves or mini-staves and wine with the HAVC (different concentrations and formulations). The influence of the extracts will be studied on sensorial characteristics of wines. Representative quantitative research with questionnaire and tasting in a framework of a central location test will be performed (400 people). The different points will be: Blind test using 1-9 Likert-Scale (hedonic liking and e.g. fruitiness, freshness, acidity, sweetness; willingness to buy or willingness to pay); Information about the recycling or environmental-friendly processes, evaluation of different compounds using Likert-Scale to measure how valuable they are for the consumers; Informed test using 1-9 Likert-Scale; respondents are informed about the added compounds; Questions concerning the wine consumption and habitation of the consumers; socio-demographical questions. This study of GEI will be the opportunity to collect informations about the consumer's perception for new wines produced with environmental-friendly processes; how they perceive the use of natural products resulting from waste recycling; and which wines are preferred. These data will evaluate the position of German wines in the European market and how to better sell the wines.

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